Monday, 31 December 2018

OPERATING CYCYE OR WORKING CAPITAL CONCEPT

OPERATING CYCYE OR WORKING CAPITAL CONCEPT


Working capital cycle or operating cycle is the whole process starting from the investment of cash for purchasing the inventory or raw material to generating the cash by selling the finished materials. Generally the whole process of operating cycle is of three phases:

1.         Investment of cash for the purchasing of Inventory. Cash can be used in the purchase of raw material, transportation of raw material to the work floor, conversion of raw material to the finished goods and then transfer of finished goods to the store. If we take the example of trading organization, there is no such manufacturing activity involved. They used cash for purchase of finished goods, some transportation expenditure and then sell it to the consumers. In that case operative cycle is comparatively short.

2.         Sometime it is very necessary for a firm to sell their product and service on credit. In that case, Cash are not received by the firm at the time of transaction and inventory is converted as receivables.


3.        In final stage of operating cycle, Firm collects the cash against the receivables. Now firm again convert cash into inventory, Inventory into receivables and  receivables into cash


The diagram below shows the concept of Working capital cycle or operating cycle

AN OVERVIEW OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

AN OVERVIEW OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION:

Every Firms or business used some funds to meet their day to day transactions. This fund is known as working capital. In general term working capital is a part of firm’s capital which is utilized as current assets. Current assets refer to cash, bank deposit, debtors, inventories, marketable securities etc.

The working capital played very important role in financial management of a business. It is mandatory requirement of every business that they keep adequate working capital for smooth running of its operations. It is not a good practice that we should have keep excess working capital or less working capital because in both situations, firm’s profitability and liquidity position have negative effects. Therefore, it is very necessary to maintain adequate working capital.

To maintain the satisfactory level of working capital between firm’s current assets and current liabilities is the primary objective of Working Capital.

To ensure proper liquidity and higher profitability of the firm, working capital should be managed very carefully and wisely. Working capital helps the firm to face the competition in the market and increase the efficiency of the firm to face the challenges.


CONCEPTS OF WORKING CAPITAL

There are two concepts of working capital:
ü  Balance sheet concept or traditional concept.
ü  Operating cycle concept.
BALANCE SHEET CONCEPT OR TRADITIONAL CONCEPT

Balance Sheet concept or traditional concept shows the position of the firm at a certain point of time. It is calculated on the basis of balance sheet prepared at a specific date. In this method there are two types of working capital.
ü  Gross working capital
ü  Net working capital
GROSS WORKING CAPITAL

It refers to a firm’s investment in current assets. The sum of the current assets is the working capital of the business. The sum of the current is quantitative aspect of working capital which emphasizes more on quantity than on its quality, but it fails to reveal the true picture of the financial position of the business because every increase in current liabilities will decrease the gross working capital.


NET WORKING CAPITAL                                                                       

It is difference between the current assets and current liabilities or the excess of total current assets over total current liabilities. It can also be defined as that part of a firm’s current asset which is financed with long term funds. It may be either negative or positive. When the current assets exceed the current liabilities, the working capital is positive and vice-versa.

LIST OF Top 10 B-Schools (MBA College) in India


According to India’s No. 1 business medium CNBC-TV18
 ‘The top 10 List of B-Schools Rankings’ is given in the list below. IIM Ahmedabad led the rankings t and continues to be the first position in the list for Management education in India. IIM Bangalore, IIM Calcutta and IIM Lucknow placed in 2nd,3rd ,4th respectively in the ranking, followed next ,MDI, XLRI, NITIE and FMS as they took up the next 4 positions. NITIE made significant gains along with IIM Kozhikode to get into the Top 10 List. XLRI and FMS got a a bit drop in their rankings this year.

2012 Rank
B-School
1
IIM, Ahmedabad
2
IIM, Bangalore
3
IIM, Calcutta
4
IIM, Lucknow
5
MDI, Gurgaon
6
XLRI, Jamshedpur
7
NITIE, Mumbai
8
FMS, Delhi
9
SP Jain, Mumbai
10
IIM, Kozhikode

Methodology of the Rankings:
Research organization C fore conducted the survey to rank top B-schools in India. Invitations were sent to about 1000 b-schools to participate. In all 113 b-schools participated in the survey. The validation exercise was carried by a special team, which cross-checked the data by asking for necessary documents like appointment letters, balance sheets, annual report etc. Veracity of information was also checked by the mystery auditing method.

Objective scores were obtained by evaluating b-schools against the following five broad parameters:
1. Intellectual capital
2. Placement performance
3. Infrastructure and facilities
4. Industry interface
5. International linkages


TYPES OF MBA PROGRAM


TYPES OF MBA PROGRAM
Followings are the type of MBA Program
1. The one-year MBA Program
2. The Two-year MBA Program

3. The part-time MBA program
4. The online MBA program
5. The executive MBA program
6. The specialized MBA
7. The corporate MBA

The one-year MBA Program
One-year programs are dramatically different from their two-year counterparts. They usually have very strict requirements in regards to work background and academic training. The program length is typically eleven to sixteen months. Students do not work full-time because school is considered the first priority. Yet, the advantage of this kind of MBA reaches far beyond classroom instruction through the development of a powerful and cohesive network of MBA colleagues. In addition, a highly specialized program can simultaneously build upon your current career or industry specialty. Finally, the full-time program typically includes extensive career placement and counselling services, professional groups and clubs, and experienced industry guest lecturers. However, the one-year program has one draw back in that there are no extended breaks between semesters, which curtails internship opportunities.
The Two-year MBA Program
A typical two-year MBA program consists of four semesters.  Classes are taken over the course of two academic years. Most students take three-to-four-month internships between academic years. During the first year, students complete the required curriculum. The second year focuses on elective courses with specialization in a particular area of interest. This MBA program is ideal both for professionals who are changing careers and for those who seek to increase their potential in the same field. The advantages of a two-year MBA are that they accept a variety of academic backgrounds, and the internships encourage the development of new skills. Most full-time MBA programs also have extensive career placement and counselling services, professional groups and clubs, and experienced guest lecturers.  Bear in mind that this type of MBA is designed for people who have well-defined career objectives and the resources to devote themselves to studying full-time.

The part-time MBA program
Designed for working professionals, most part-time MBA candidates work full-time during the day and attend classes in the evening. The part-time program is particularly appealing to those who wish to advance their existing career. It can also be advantageous for professionals who have already developed a network of business relationships that can facilitate a change of careers.
Moreover, this type of MBA allows you to improve existing skills or develop new ones without interrupting your current position. Tuition assistance and student loans may also be available. However, frequent work-related travel or relocation could potentially be an obstacle to completing this kind of MBA.


The online MBA program
New technologies have made distance learning an increasingly popular option.  The on-line program offers a core curriculum with a limited number of electives. The programs can take up to eight years to complete, though students generally finish in three or four years. Coursework uses e-mail, computer conferencing, chat rooms, on-line bulletin boards, and sound and video clips. Be sure to verify that the program is accredited so companies will consider it valid. The distance-learning programs require less time commitment than other MBAs and, it offers more geographic flexibility. Class work can also be scheduled around personal and professional commitments. Finally, tuition is much lower for an on-line MBA than for traditional campus-based programs. However you should not forget that this program offers limited contact with fellow classmates, therefore, this MBA is not a good choice if you prefer an interactive environment. Finally, few distance-learning programs are available because this technology and form of learning is relatively new. Nevertheless, distance-learning MBA programs have become commonplace as an increasing number of business professionals and busy executives opt to earn their degree on-line.



The executive program

This MBA is generally designed for senior managers with at least seven years of business experience. Courses tend to focus on global business issues and strategies. The program is generally considered full-time and can take up to 24 months to complete with almost no opportunity to specialize. All students take the same general management curriculum simultaneously. In addition, Executive MBAs earn their degrees briskly, in two years or less, much faster than part-time students. However, this type of MBA requires a high level of commitment not only from the students, but also their families and employers. Most students put in 80 to 100 hours a week between their jobs and school.


The specialized MBA
As business professionals become more attuned to their own interests, they often want to delve deeper into a specific field to hone their competence. There are MBA programs that focus on certain industries such as healthcare and hi-tech. A tremendous benefit of the specialized MBA is often derived from the expertise of course instructors and even fellow classmates. Typically, instructors for specialized MBA courses, such as e-business, will have in-depth experience in the field and understand industry nuances. A specialized MBA helps professionals stay on the cutting edge of their chosen field, but it also provides essential management tools learned from a traditional MBA program. The specialized MBA is only for individuals firmly entrenched in their careers, as the degree is highly specific, therefore inadaptable to other fields.


The corporate MBA
The MBA, in which courses actually occur on company premises, is a new type of program, which can be offered to a significant number of employees. For instance, the business school HEC in Montréal now offers this relatively new MBA. Participating companies have specific requirements such choosing its MBA candidates. The MBA program director at  HEC Montreal, Jean Talbot, explains: “…companies are selecting their own MBA students. They have the power of money because they are the ones who are financing the program. Therefore, the 3-year program MBA requires an agreement between the school and the company”. Concerning the Pratt and Whitney programs with HEC Montréal, interested candidates are usually engineers and accountants. In brief, this MBA lacks student diversity; in fact, it is usually offered to a specific department in a company. The benefits are that the school offers training specifically adapted to the company’s need. In addition, the school  adjusts its schedule to the company’s timetable. Finally, this MBA creates a motivated and united group of workers and an interesting network.

Sunday, 30 December 2018

WHY SHOULD A STUDENT PURSUE MBA


Ask a young student who is about to complete his/her graduation and step out in the world, as to what are his future plans. Some would plan to find a job and settle down, while most of them would want to go for post graduation program, especially MBA program, irrespective of their graduation degree. There are a large number of engineering, medical, Arts and many other such graduation courses to pursue management courses. This trend used to make me wonder, I used to think why anyone from a different educational background would take up MBA for further studies.
However, reading different articles on the net and educational magazine have pacified my curiosity about the increased in the number of management aspirants. MBA courses open up innumerable avenues and create unlimited career opportunity for the person. In today’s age of cut-throat competition, every organization; whether it is a public sector enterprise or a private corporation needs to give outstanding performance to sustain in the market and make profit. This is the why any organization prefers to hire a management professional.
Knowledge imparted in MBA program develops managerial skills of the learner, which makes them highly employable any company, as these skills provide them essential acumen for dealing with real-time situations relating to management and resolution of problems. It not only equips the pursuer to enact a managerial role but also makes easy for them to grab the core responsibilities of any organization.
MBA programs are an all-in-one educational program that focuses on providing holistic knowledge about every function right from administration and handling finances to the basics of operations that is required to make the management of any organization hassle free and smooth, helping the executives and other top officials to concentrate on formulating policies that can boost the chances of the firm to get maximum profits.
Corporate world is full of unexpected risks, which only a person with adequate expertise and knowledge about the functional areas of various industries can manage and only MBA course can give them the acumen to understand the nature of the unexpected business world. Therefore, management professionals become highly employable for large corporations as well as for the small and medium scale industries.
A management degree gives a head start to the career of a fresher. An MBA program makes the individual an expert of the functions related to the smooth functioning of any company. This proficiency helps an MBA professional to climb up the corporate ladder quickly as compared to his/her peers or colleagues who lacks the required aptitude. According to a recent survey, high performing successful MBAs are more likely to reach top management levels of Fortune 500 companies and other corporate areas.
One of the biggest advantages that an MBA course gives a good salary package that a normal post graduates are not offered. It is usually seen that a student with above average grades gets starting salary between 12000 to 15000 which is quite a good amount as compared to the other graduates.
Thus, MBA program has manifold advantages, which makes it so popular among the people from every age group right from 20 to 50 who dreams to have a successful career.

How to make a MBA Project?

Making a MBA Project is very creative work. MBA students must include all the important aspects related to the topics in the project. Making a good and attractive project is not an easy work.

As getting an MBA degree requires a lot of pain and struggle, it is essential to undertake many projects, during the course of time. But, creating a fulfilling MBA Project report is not an easy task at all. It requires day and night of hard work as well as a lot of time and research. And after completing the project, making a project report is mandatory. The very idea of making a project report leaves an MBA student clueless. On the other hand, this report is the only way of making an examiner aware of what you are actually trying to convey through your project.


Project report actually reflects, what MBA students are trying to achieve through their project report. This report brings out the individualistic views of the student on the project as well as their knowledge gained from the whole experience. It makes it easier for the examiners to make out that whether the student has actually worked on the project or not. So, it is requisite for a student to create a fulfilling MBA project report.

Followings are the things a student must keep in his mind while preparing a project report for MBA: -
  1. First and the foremost step is to present the facts related to the project and validate them. Examine the impact of the conditions and the events.
  2. The project should sound relevant to the examiner. Therefore, highlight why you undertook the project and make it clear through your project that you took the project because it is related to your field of interest.
  3. Your report should ascertain what all you have learnt throughout the year.
  4. Meet and discuss the project with your advisor. He can surely help you in  writing a good project report. In case you are still doubtful regarding how your MBA project report actually looks then you can even get assistance from the experts online. They can tell you about what else you can include in your report and which things you can exclude to make the report more presentable.
  5. You can search for information online as it is an open platform where you can get everything and anything related to your report. Proper research and evaluation plays a vital role in actually deciding how effective your project report is.
  6. Dont try to make your project report very lengthy. Try to cover each of aspect of related topic in brief.
  7. Take sugesstions from your teacher and senior students.

MBA project report should sound relevant to the examiner and should throw light on your experience of making the project. And make sure that you don't include statistical tool's history, whereas include the name of the ones who helped you in making your MBA project report.
I hope this will help MBA students to prepare their project report.

LIST OF MBA PROJECTS


LIST OF MBA PROJECT

  1. A PROJECT REPORT ON THE MOTIVATION OF THE EMPLOYEES OF SBI LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED.
  2. A PROJECT ON“WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT &ANALYSIS OF BALANCE SHEET” ATRESESRCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE FOR IRON AND STEEL (RDCIS),RANCHI
  3. A PROJECT ON FUNCTION OF FINANCE DEPARTMENT IN HEAVY ENGINEERING CORPORATION, RANCHI 
  4. A PROJECT REPORT ON MARKETING OF SECONDARY & BY-PRODCUTS IN BSL, BOKARO, JHARKHAND
  5. AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF SWASTIK FRUIT P.V.T LTD.  & SWASTIK AQUA P.V.T LTD, RANCHI, JHARKHAND
  6. ORGANISATION STUDY AND  PROCESS OF REPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL BUDGET PREPARED AT RESESRCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE FOR IRON AND STEEL(SAIL),RANCHI
  7. A PROJECT REPORT ON “HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT – EMPLOYEE RELATIONS”  IN MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN KISHORE PUMPS PVT. LTD, GREAVES COTTON LTD., KINETIC ENGINEERING LTD.
  8. A SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT ON KOTAK MAHINDRA GROUP
  9. A SUMMER PLACEMENT REPORT ON HDFC STANDARD LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED.
  10. A SUMMER PLACEMENT REPORT ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT HYDERABAD DIVISION OF HAL
  11. A REPORT ON “POTENTIAL OF LIFE INSURANCE INDUSTRY IN SURAT MARKET OF KOTAK LIFE INSURANCE.
  12. A PROJECT REPORT ON EMPLOYEES SATISFACTION ON SOCIAL WELFARE FACILITIES IN HEAVY ENGINEERING CORPORATION, RANCHI 
  13. PROJECT REPORT ON PROJECT MANAGEMENT  SYSTEM DEVELOPED FOR NATIONAL INFORMATICS CENTRE (NIC) NEW DELHI.
  14. A SUMMER PROJECT/INTERNSHIP REPORT ON RETAIL STORE OPERATIONS AT RELIANCE RETAIL LTD
  15. PROJECT REPORT ON INDUSTRIAL RELATION SYSTEM IN CENTRAL COALFIELDS LIMITED (CCL), RANCHI (A SUBSIDIARY OF COAL INDIA LIMITED).
  16. A PROJECT REPORT ON TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT AT   BONANZA PORTFOLIO LIMITED, RANCHI
  17. A REPORT ON EVALUATION OF CONSULTANCY SERVICES RENDERED IN-HOUSE   AND FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF NEW PROJECT DONE AT STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED (SAIL).
  18. A PROJECT REPORT ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SECURITY&INTELLIGENCE SERVICES (INDIA) LTD RANCHI.

IF ANY ONE WANT PROJECT ON ANY TOPIC RELATING TO MBA PLEASE FEEL FREE TO CONTACT ME.

TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION USED BY SBI LIFE INSURANCE FOR THEIR EMPLOYEES


TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION USED BY SBI LIFE INSURANCE FOR THEIR EMPLOYEES


Motivation involves the basic psychological reasons for a person's actions and behaviour. These are the forces or factors that cause a person to act a certain way or to behave in the manner that they do.


There are various types of motivations used by SBI Life Insurance for their Employees:

Ø  Providing adequate resources for each employee to perform well. This includes support functions like information technology, communication technology, and personnel training and development.

Ø  Creating a supportive corporate culture. This includes peer support networks, supportive management, and removing elements that foster mistrust and politicking.

Ø  Free flow of information. Eliminate secrecy.

Ø  Provide enough freedom to facilitate job excellence. Encourage and reward employee initiative. Flextime or compressed hours could be offered.

Ø  Provide adequate recognition, appreciation, and other motivators.

Ø  Provide skill improvement opportunities. This could include paid education at universities or on the job training.

Ø  Provide job variety. This can be done by job sharing or job rotation programmes.

Ø  It may be necessary to re-engineer the job process. This could involve redesigning the physical facility, redesign processes, change technologies, simplification of procedures, elimination of repetitiveness, redesigning authority structures.

Ø  Provide an extended period of paid time off allows the employee to enjoy family recreation or travel

Ø  Organize wellness programs stress reduction, healthy eating and living clinics, weight-loss and smoking-cessation programs, exercise facilities, massage breaks, and health screenings.

Ø   In some cases, Employees are allowed to manage budgets, conduct performance appraisals, hire team members, and in rare instances, fire employees

Ø  Allows each employee to personally see how their involvement affects corporate success or failure.

Ø  Care should be taken, that punishment and penalties are used as a controlling technique and that they do not demotivation.